Olson & Baker Guide to Lighting


LED bulbs are more expensive than Halogen bulbs, however they last much longer and are much more energy efficient.

LED bulbs use light emitting diodes that do not give off heat, whereas Halogen bulbs use a filament that is heated until it glows.


The fitting determines what size bulb the piece requires to turn on. It is important to check that the bulb you are using matches the fitting, otherwise the piece will not work. There is a wide range of different fittings available that differ in both size and light source type.


Wattage is how much power a bulb requires to function, and typically the higher the wattage is the more light it produces – however, this is also dependent on the light source type.

For example a 60W Halogen light may produce the same amount of light as a 5W LED light, due to LED lights requiring less power to function.


The IP Rating system, also known as Ingress Protection Rating or International Protection Rating, is a rating system that gauges how resistant a product is against foreign bodies such as moisture, dust, liquids, and any other unwanted things that may interfere with the internals of the product.

The first digit of the rating (For example, IP[2]0) indicates how effective the piece is at blocking solids, such as dust.

The second digit of the rating (For example, IP2[0]) indicates how effective the piece is at blocking liquids, such as steam.

Most indoor bulbs function with an IP rating of IP20, with outdoor lighting generally being a minimum of IP44 and bathroom lighting typically being IP65.

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